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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

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1909: On February 12, the National Negro Committee is formed. Founders include Ida Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. Du Bois, Henry Moskowitz, Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villiard, and William English Walling.

1910: The NAACP begins court proceedings regarding the Pink Franklin case, a suit involving a black farmhand who killed a policeman in an act of self-defense when the officer broke into his home to arrest him on a civil charge.

1913: The NAACP protests U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's official introduction of racial segregation to the federal government.

1914: Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University becomes chairman of the NAACP and recruits for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise. Spingarn also establishes the Spingarn Medal, awarded annually for outstanding achievement by a black American.

1915: The NAACP organizes a nationwide protest against D.W. Griffith's racially inflammatory film, Birth of a Nation.

1917: In Buchanan v. Warley, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that states cannot restrict and officially segregate black Americans into residential districts. The NAACP also wins a battle to enable black Americans to be commissioned as officers in World War I. Six hundred officers are commissioned, and 700,000 black American men are registered for the draft.

1918: After pressure by the NAACP, President Woodrow Wilson makes a public statement against lynching.

1919: The NAACP sends Walter F. White to Arkansas to investigate the mass murder of two hundred black tenant farmers. The association also organizes the appeals on behalf of more than a hundred African-American defendants convicted in mob-dominated judicial proceedings.

1920: The NAACP's annual conference is held in Atlanta, Georgia, an area considered to be one of the most active areas of Ku Klux Klan activities. Members chose this location in the face of attempted intimidation on behalf of Klan operations.

1922: The NAACP places large ads in major newspapers nationwide to spread awareness and present facts about lynching.

1930: The first of many successful protests organized by the NAACP against Supreme Court justice nominees begins against Judge John Parker who favored laws that discriminated against black Americans.

1935: NAACP lawyers Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall win a legal battle to admit the first black student, Donald Gaines Murray, to the University of Maryland's Law School.

1939: The NAACP helps to organize an open-air concert at the Washington, D.C. Lincoln Memorial for the acclaimed contralto Marian Anderson. Anderson, having been barred from performing at Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution, performs before an audience of 75,000.

1940: The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund is founded.

1941: The NAACP helps to support President Franklin D. Roosevelt's World War II order of a nondiscrimination policy in war-related industries and federal employment.

1954: Under the leadership of special counsel Thurgood Marshall, the NAACP wins the controversial Brown v. Board of Education, a historic U.S. Supreme Court decision barring school segregation.

1955: NAACP member and volunteer Rosa Parks is arrested and fined for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama. This action becomes a catalyst for the largest grassroots civil rights movement in the U.S., spearheaded through the collective efforts of the NAACP, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and smaller black organizations.

1957: The NAACP's Legal Defense Fund becomes a separate organization.

1960: In Greensboro, North Carolina, members of the NAACP Youth Council start a series of nonviolent sit-ins at segregated lunch counters throughout the state. These protests eventually lead to more than sixty stores officially desegregating their counters.

1963: After a mass rally for civil rights, Medgar Evers, the NAACP's first field director of its Mississippi Chapter, is assassinated in front of his home in Jackson, Mississippi.

1963: The NAACP pushed for passage of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission-supported Equal Employment Opportunity Act.

1964: The U.S. Supreme Court ends the eight-year effort of Alabama officials to ban NAACP activities within the state.

1965: Amidst threats of violence and efforts of state and local governments, the NAACP registers more than 80,000 voters in the Southern United States.

1975: Margaret Bush Wilson, a St. Louis attorney, becomes the first female black American to chair the NAACP's National Board of Directors.

1979: The NAACP initiates the first bill ever signed by a governor that allows voter registration in high schools. Twenty-four states follow suit.

1981: The NAACP leads the effort to extend the Voting Rights Act for an additional 25 years. To cultivate economic empowerment, the NAACP establishes the Fair Share Program in conjunction with major corporations across the country.

1982: The NAACP registers more than 850,000 additional voters.

1989: the NAACP holds a silent march of more than 100,000 people to protest various U.S. Supreme Court decisions that reverse many of the

1991: The NAACP launches a voter registration campaign to defeat avowed Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke from securing the position of U.S. Senator for the state of Louisiana. The campaign yields a 76-percent turnout rate and defeats Duke's aspirations.

1995: Myrlie Evers-Williams, widow of Medgar Evers, is elected to lead the NAACP's board of directors.

1996: Kweisi Mfume, after leaving the United States House of Representatives, becomes the president of the NAACP.

1996: Responding to national anti-affirmative action legislation, the NAACP launches the Economic Reciprocity Program. In later response to increased violence among black youth, the organization organizes the "Stop The Violence, Start the Love" campaign.

2000: The NAACP helps to accomplish television diversity agreements and produces the largest voter turnout of black Americans in 20 years.

2002: Protesting the presence of the Confederate Battle Flag on South Carolina's State House grounds, the NAACP launches separate protests at the Bi-Lo Center and the Carolina Coliseum for hosting the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) men's and women's basketball tournaments. The NCAA follows by banning South Carolina-based venues from hosting any future championship events. The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) quickly prohibits Knights Castle, based in Fort Mill, South Carolina, from hosting its national baseball tournament.

2005: Following the resignation of Kweisi Mfume, business executive Bruce S. Gordon is chosen unanimously to serve as president of the NAACP.

2005: Civil rights pioneer and lifetime NAACP member Rosa Parks dies, her body laid in state in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol. She is the first woman ever to be so honored.

2006: The NAACP announces plans to move its national headquarters from Baltimore, Maryland to Washington, D.C.

References

  • Dalfiume, Richard. 1969. "The Forgotten Years of the Negro Revolution." Journal of American History 55:99-100.
  • Fleming, Cynthia Griggs. 2004. In the Shadow of Selma: The Continuing Struggle for Civil Rights in the Rural South. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0742508110
  • Goings, Kenneth W. 1990. The NAACP Comes of Age: The Defeat of Judge John J. Parker. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253325854
  • Hughes, Langston. 1962. Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0826213715
  • Janken, Kenneth Robert. 2003. White: The Biography of Walter White, Mr. NAACP. New Press. ISBN 1565847733
  • Jonas, Gilbert S. 2004. Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. Routledge. ISBN 0415949858
  • Lewis, David Levering. 1994 2001. W.E.B. DuBois: Biography of a Race. Owl Books. Pulitzer Prize. ISBN 0805035680
  • Mosnier, L. Joseph. 2005. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. U. of North Carolina.
  • Ross, Barbara Joyce. 1972. J. E. Spingarn and the Rise of the NAACP, 1911-1939. Scribner. ISBN 0689703376
  • Schneider, Mark Robert. 2001. We Return Fighting: The Civil Rights Movement in the Jazz Age. Northeastern University Press. ISBN 1555534902
  • St. James, Warren D. 1958. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups.
  • Topping, Simon. 2004. "'Supporting Our Friends and Defeating Our Enemies': Militancy and Nonpartisanship in the NAACP, 1936-1948." The Journal of African American History (Jan. 1).
  • Zangrando, Robert. 1980. The NAACP Crusade Against Lynching, 1909-1950. Temple University Press. ISBN 087722174X

External links

All links retrieved November 8, 2018.

  • NAACP Official site

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